RANGKUMAN MATERI BAHASA INGGRIS
KELAS XII SEMESTER 1
An explanation is a piece of writing that gives straightforward information. It explains the processes related to the formation of natural, social, scientific, and cultural phenomena. Ex: how volcano eruption occurs, or how to prevent bone fracture at an old age.
- - Communicative Purposes
To enable the readers to understand the processes involved in the formation or the working of a phenomenon.
- - Examples of explanation texts
Reports on natural phenomena, articles on scientific inventiions, documentary films.
- - The organization of an explanation text
An explanation text can have as many paragraphs as the writer wants. However, it mainly consists of two parts: general statement and explanation.
a. General statement
This part presents the subject that is going to be explained.
The supporting paragraphs are known as explanation. The explanation statements are in chronological order to illustrate how the subject came into existence or how it works.
- - The grammatical features related to explanation texts
o Simpe Present Tense (current facts)
o Passive voice
o Action verbs
o Conjunction of time and cause effect
o Adverbial Phrases
o Noun Phrases
o Technical Terms
o General and Abstract Nouns
- - This is the following example of the explanation text:
How Bread is Made
Almost everyone eats bread daily, especially for breakfast. Bread making is noat a complicated task. You only need flour, water, yeast, sugar, salt, oil, butter, and an oven.
Choosing good flour is the first step in making bread. There are two kinds of flour, soft and hard. Hard flour, made of winter wheat, is a better choice for making bread because it produces bread that has a better texture and taste.
Then, lukewarm water, yeast, sugar, and salt are mixed with the flour to make dough. Yeast is a microscopic organism that is capable of producing carbon dioxide. It can make the dough rise or expand. Both sugar and salt give flavor to the bread so that it tastes nice. They, however, have different effects on yeast. After that, oil (such as olive oil, corn oil, peanut oil) and butter are added because they are essential to make the bread tender. After mixing all the ingredients, the dough is sent to the oven.
A narrative is a piece of writing that tells a story. The story can be imaginary or based on a real incident.
- - Communication purpose
To entertain the readers
- - Examples of narrative texts
Short stories, folk tales, legends, fables and myths.
- - The organization of a narrative text:
A narrative text can have as many paragraphs as you want. However, it mainly consists of three parts:
o Orientation : presents the setting of your story and introduces the characters involved.
o Complications: The story continues here. Usually, there will be an event or a sequence of events that lead the characters into a complication (some form of conflict that disrupts the normal event). Tension starts to build up to a climax, and this draws anticipation in the readers.
o Resolution: the problem starts to get resolved. Sometimes the story ends happily or vice versa, and at other times the resolution (i.e. the ending of the story) is left for the readers to decide.
- - Grammatical features related to the narrative texts:
o Action Verb
o Connectors to do with time and sequence
o Simple Past Tense
o Compound and Complex Sentences
- - This is the following example of the narrative text:
A long time ago, there was a beautiful little princess named Elly who liked to climb trees. “Behave like a lady, and stop climbing trees,” said her parents. Yet, she did not listen and went on climbing all sorts of trees.
Years went by, and she had grown up. By now she was an expert in tree climbing. Her parents grieved. “Who will marry a rough woman?” said her mother sadly.
“We will make use of the situation,” her father replied. “I will offer half of my kingdom and the princess hand in marriage to any man who can beat her at tree climbing”.
After the king’s offer was announced, the palace was soon swamped with souitors who could climb trees. Most of them were terrible; only a few were good. The princess then said, “Never mind, father. Now, let me set a test, and perhaps a good suitor can be found.” Then, she turned to the suitors and asked, “Do youa agree that you were beaten fairly?”
“No,” they all roared. “We think it was magic or some sort of trick.”
But one said, “Yes. I was beaten fairly.”
The princess was touched by the man’s honesty. She smiled and turned to her father. She pointed to the man and said, “If he likes me, I will marry him.” It turned out the suitor also liked the princess. Then, they decided to get married and lived happily ever after.
A discussion is a piece of writing that explores both sides of an issue. In discussion text the writer tries to present the pros and cons or the advantages and disadvantages of an issue to allow the readers to reach a logical conclusion. The writer should always try to give an impersonal and balanced view.
- - Communicative Purposes
To present arguments/opinions/information from different points of view.
- - Examples of discussion texts
Newspaper editorials, deabtes, thesis, journalist
- - The organization of a discussion text
A discussion text consists of four main parts: issue, arguments for, arguments againts, and conclusion/recommendation.
This part introduces the topic and previews the arguments that the rest of paragraphs expand upon
o Arguments for
Is positive arguments or in agreement with issue. Each stage of the argument consists of a point and elaboration. A point is made and then elaborated. In other words, the writer discusses each point, then gives a detailed information or evidence to support it.
o Arguments against
Is negative arguments or in disagreement with the issue. Each stage of the argument also consists of a point and elaboration. A point is made and the elaborated. In other words, the writer discusses each point, then gives a detailed information or evidence to support it.
The closing is a brief summing-up of the issue explored or the writer’s own opinion.
- - The grammatical features related to discussion texts
o Relating verbs
o Thinking verbs
o General nouns
o Abstract nouns
o Adeverbial manner
- - This is the following example of the discussion text:
There are differences of opinion on the avian flu. Some say this could claim 150 million deaths, but others believe the current alarm on avian flu to be unwaraanted as there is no proof it can spread between humans.
According to the chief coordinator of the United Nations, 150 million people could die form the disease if a pandemic strikes. One of the most frightnening aspects of a human flu pandemic arising from avian influenza would be its unpredictability. It’s difficult to estimate the death toll should the H5N1 virus mutate into a form that could be easily transmitted between humans. It is not possible to predict whether a pandemic would occur once, or if it would repeat. However, epidemiologists recommend that governments take every possible precaution against the threat of bird flu seriously.
Contrary to all the dire predictions about an avian flu pandemic, some ecologists dismiss the current panic as unsubstantiated gues work. One ecologist contends that H5N1 virus still remains a bird virus and no scientific evidence yet exist of human-to-human transmission. There are billions of people across Asia, and only 118 of them have been infected by avian flu. So, how do they know that 150 million or more people could die because of avian flu? The global panic, according to the ecologist, is the result of “scare tactics” created by politicians, medical officers and the media.
It’s premature to predict the outcome of avian flu until health scientists confirm the possibility of human-to-human transmission. The advice is to keep cool and not panic because if you do, you will weaken your resistance and reduce your immune system.
ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICES
Verbs are normally classified as either Active or Passive Vocie. Active and passive voice each has its own advantages. Active voice is a direct voice. This is the voice we normally use in our daily life. However, active voice has some verbs that cannot be transformed into passive voice. For example, we can say “She has a dress” but we cannot say “A new dress is had by her”. Again we say “Mike lacked courtesy but not “Courtesy was lacked”.
On the other hand, we find excessive use of passive voice creates a sense of protection and avoiding responsibility. For example, “The alcohol ads on the billboard were designed to inspire children to take up drinking”. The burden rests on the “ads”, whereas the word “we” in “We designed the alcohol ads on the billboard to inspire children to take up drinking” is the responsible party.
Be careful not to mix active and passive voices in the same sentece. “The board of directors approved the budget, and the expenditure for next year’s meeting was revised” should be written “The board of directors approved the budget and revised the expenditure for next year’s meeting”.
Active voice --> Someone locked the front door from the inside.
Passive voice --> The front door was locked from the inside (by someone).